Pipeline Repair, Hot Tapping and In-Service Welding Course



The objective of this course is to provide an in-depth overview of the various aspects of pipeline modification and repair (full encirclement sleeves, hot taps, etc) as well as to address the concerns for welding onto in-service pipelines. A thorough understanding of the factors that affect the concerns for welding onto in-service pipelines will allow repairs and modifications to be made with confidence. The proper use of in-service welding allows both economic and environmental benefits to be realised by avoiding pipeline shutdown and interruption of service.


The course includes a review and critical analysis of available thermal analysis models, including the original Battelle model, the heat sink capacity method and the PRCI Thermal Analysis Model for Hot Tap Welding. Students will learn why these models, while useful as planning tools, should not be regarded as ‘magic bullets’ against hydrogen cracking in hot tap welding and by utilising worked comparative examples. This course will give an unbiased analysis of best strategies for avoiding burn through and the development of crack susceptible weld micro-structures. It is intended for a wide range of personnel, from welders and inspectors to engineers and managers.


The course takes place over two full days and will dispel a number of misconceptions that have developed pertaining  to operating practices required to safely weld onto an in-service pipeline. If the knowledge gained can be used to justify the application of in-service welding where it would have otherwise been prohibited (or prevent a single failure), the first application of the results can often offset the cost of attendance by orders of magnitude. The application of industry best practices for pipeline repair, hot tapping, and in-service welding will ensure the safety of workers, reduce the probability of a failure, and can help to extend the life of pipeline systems.


At the end of the training program, participants will acquire basic knowledge and skills regarding the following major issues:

  • Review and critical analysis of available thermal analysis models, from the original Battelle model to the PRCI Thermal Analysis Model
  • Understand the highlights of various technical resources that supplement this training program in order to provide a more comprehensive body of technical information pertaining to welding onto operating pipelines
  • A thorough understanding of the factors that affect welding onto in-service pipelines
  • Knowledge of undertaking repairs efficiently, effectively and with full confidence
  • Ensure the safety of workers
  • Reduce the probability of a shutdown, failure or service interruption
  • Extend the life-cycle of pipeline systems


  • Pipeline engineers
  • Welders
  • Designers
  • Operators
  • Service professionals who are involved with the maintenance, design, inspection and repair of oil and gas pipelines
  • Project managers with oversight for third party engineering or maintenance
  • Project and facility managers concerned with system integrity and maintenance.

Course Syllabus

Module 1: Pipeline Repair Hot Tapping and In-Service Welding

  • Introduction | Private
  • Incentives | Private
  • Primary concerns | Private

Module 2: Defect Assessment Prior to Repair

  • Reason for assessment | Private
  • Types of pipeline defects | Private
  • Pressure reduction requirements | Private
  • Corrosion measurement methods | Private
  • Corrosion assessment methods | Private

Module 3: Welding Processes/Discontinuities and Defects

  • Arc welding processes | Private
  • Consumable designations | Private
  • Discontinuities and defects | Private
  • Crack types | Private

Module 4: Burn Through and Related Safety Concerns

  • Factors affecting burn through | Private
  • Effect of wall thickness | Private
  • Effect of heat input | Private
  • Effect of flow rate/pressure | Private
  • Avoiding burn through | Private

Module 5: Hydrogen Cracking Concerns

  • Recent significant incident | Private
  • Common factor/recommendation | Private
  • Hydrogen cracking requirements | Private
  • Weld hydrogen levels | Private
  • Crack susceptible weld micro structures | Private
  • Welding residual stresses | Private
  • Welding metallurgy for carbon steels | Private
  • Thermal cycles of welded joints | Private
  • Prevention of hydrogen cracking | Private

Module 6: Full Encirclement Repair Sleeves

  • Full-encirclement sleeve types | Private
  • Principal of operation | Private
  • Assuring effective reinforcement | Private
  • Sleeve design | Private
  • Sleeve fabrication | Private

Module 7: Hot Tap Branch Connections

  • Branch connection design | Private
  • Reinforcement types | Private
  • Integrally-reinforced | Private
  • Line replacement/stopping | Private
  • Pressure testing | Private

Module 8: Pipeline Repair by Weld Deposition

  • Physical concept | Private
  • History of weld deposition repair | Private
  • Burn through risk | Private
  • Integrity restoration | Private
  • Practical application | Private
  • External repair of internal wall loss | Private

Module 9: Non-Welded Repairs

  • Repair by grinding | Private
  • Composite repairs | Private
  • Epoxy-filled shells | Private

Module 10: Selecting an Appropriate Repair Method

  • Pipeline repair manual | Private
  • Detailed selection criteria | Private

Module 11: Code and Regulatory Requirements

  • API 1104 Appendix B – In-Service Welding | Private
  • CSA Z662 requirements | Private
  • Code requirements for weld deposition repair | Private

Module 12: Procedure Selection for Hot Tap and Repair Sleeve Welding

  • Burn through risk summary | Private
  • Prevention of hydrogen cracking | Private
  • Welding procedure options | Private
  • Predicting required heat input | Private
  • Welder / procedure qualification | Private
  • Selecting an appropriate procedure | Private

Module 13: Practical Aspects of Hot Tap and Repair Sleeve Welding

  • Practical aspects of avoiding burn through | Private
  • Practical aspects of avoiding hydrogen cracking | Private
  • Qualification of welding procedures (API 1104) | Private
  • Qualification of welders (API 1104) | Private
  • Welding procedure selection examples | Private
  • Chemical composition determination | Private
  • Electrode (filler metal) selection | Private
  • Proper electrode handling | Private
  • Proper fit-up | Private
  • Proper welding sequence | Private
  • Control of heat input levels | Private
  • Inspection and testing | Private

Module 14: Alternative Welding Processes for In-Service Welding

  • Conventional processes | Private
  • Alternative processes | Private
  • Branch connection root pass welding | Private
  • Cellulosic-coated electrode limitations | Private

Module 15: Lessons to be learned from Past Pipeline Repair Incidents

  • Reported incidents | Private
  • Previously unreported incidents | Private
  • Ten Commandments of in-service welding | Private

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